Нефтегазовая геоэкология
Аннотация и ключевые слова
Аннотация (русский):
Книга посвящена фундаментальным проблемам взаимодействия углеводородов и биосферы. Углеводороды – это глобальное явление нашей планеты. В биосфере углеводороды вездесущи, а формы их проявлений многообразны. Углеводороды в форме нефти газа тысячелетиями поступали из недр на поверхность Земли во многих местах земного шара, но нет никаких свидетельств, что в ранние эпохи они были антагонистами биосферы. В древние времена человек воспринимал многочисленные выходы нефти как часть окружающей среды. Начиная с XIX века, потребность человечества в топливно-энергетических и химических ресурсах возрастала непрерывно. Нефть и углеводородный газ стали находить на всех обжитых континентах и под омывающими их морями. Экспансия углеводородов в биосферу постепенно вошла в противоречие с установившимися в природе экологическими равновесиями. Нефть, углеводородный газ, продукты их переработки стали оказывать повсеместное негативное влияние на компоненты окружающей среды. Глобальность этих процессов сделала нефтегазовую геоэкологию актуальной научной проблемой, затрагивающей все другие области экологии. Материал книги основан на многолетних оригинальных исследованиях авторов и данных современных научных источников. Ее первая часть посвящена общим чертам химического состава и токсичности углеродистых веществ – нефти, природного газа, твердых битумов, нефтепродуктов. Главное внимание уделено природным потокам углеводородов в биосфере. Рассматривается большой геохимический цикл углеводородов на Земле. Природные углеводороды и углеродистые вещества в целом участвуют в естественной эволюции биосферы, не принося ей вреда. Наиболее опасными для живой природы могут быть чрезмерное количество антропогенных выбросов этих веществ, а также присутствие токсичных соединений в их составе и в сопровождающих химических соединениях-спутниках. Во второй части книги показаны основные проявления нефтегазового техногенеза в окружающей среде и изменения среды, связанные с влиянием нефтегазового дела. В третьей части книги обсуждаются вопросы устойчивости природных систем к загрязнению нефтью и нефтепродуктами, потенциал компонентов окружающей среды к самовосстановлению, способы их очистки и рекультивации. В четвертой части рассматриваются методы диагностики, мониторинга и прогнозирования изменений окружающей среды, находящейся под влиянием нефтегазового техногенеза. Книга рассчитана на широкий круг читателей и учащихся, которым интересна экологическая роли нефти и газа в окружающей среде.

Ключевые слова:
нефть, нефтепродукты, окружающая среда, углеводороды, техногенез, загрязнение, рекультивация, почвы, атмосфера, поверхностные и подземные воды, море
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