BISAC NAT030000 Rocks & Minerals
BISAC TEC031030 Power Resources / Fossil Fuels
This book covers the fundamental problems of the interaction of hydrocarbons with biosphere. Hydrocarbons are the global phenomenon of our planet. In the biosphere, hydrocarbons are ubiquitous, and appear in a variety of forms. Hydrocarbons in the form of oil and gas have been released from Earth’s core to its surface for thousands of years, nevertheless, no evidence exists that in the early days hydrocarbons were antagonists of the biosphere. In ancient times, humans perceived numerous oil occurrences as part of the environment. Since the 20th century, the humanity’s demand for fuel and energy and chemical resources has grown continuously. Oil and hydrocarbon were found on all inhabited continents and under the surrounding seas more often. The expansion of hydrocarbons into the biosphere has gradually come into collision with the naturally established ecological balances. Oil, natural gas, and products of their processing have had a pervasive negative impact on the components of the environment. The global nature of these processes has made oil and gas environmental ecology a pressing scientific challenge, addressing all others areas of ecology. This book is based on long-term original researches of its authors and the information from modern scientific sources. The first part of the book deals with common features of carbonaceous substances chemical composition and toxicity - oil, natural gas, nature hard bitumen, and petroleum products. The main focus is on hydrocarbon natural flows in the biosphere. The Earth’s larger geochemical hydrocarbon cycle is considered. Natural hydrocarbons and carbonaceous substances in general are involved in the biosphere’s natural evolution without exposing it to any damage. The most dangerous for wild life are the exceeding amount of anthropogenic emissions of those substances as well as the presence of toxic compounds in its composition and in accompanying chemical compounds-associates. The second part of the book examines the main manifestations of petroleum anthropization in the environment and the change of the environment associated with the influence of petroleum engineering. The third part of the book discusses the issues of stability of the natural systems in case of pollution by oil and petroleum products, natural purification potential of environmental components, means for cleaning and remediation. The fourth part of the book discusses the methods for diagnostics, monitoring, and forecasting environmental changes caused by petroleum anthropization. This book targets a wide range of the readers and students who are interested in the ecological role of oil and gas in the environment.
oil, petroleum products, environment, ecology, hydrocarbons, anthropization, contamination, remediation, landscape geochemistry, soil, surface and groundwater, sea, atmosphere
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